The Neuron

Hi, it’s Paul, Andersen and in this video I’m going to go over the basics of the neuron. The neuron is the basic unit in the nervous system. in a simple animal like A nematode worm, they only have 302 neurons, But what they allow them to do is to take information in from their surroundings and respond to that Information. if you look at how those 302 neurons are connected it’s very complex. Now humans are quite a bit bigger And we have a hundred billion neurons in our body. Most of those are centered in the central nervous system in the brain and the spinal Cord, But the basic unit of our nervous system is the same: it’s the neuron. If we look at the neuron Anatomy and remove all the other neurons that the center is going to be what’s called the cell body. This is a typical cell. It’s metabolizing. Cell. It’s taking an energy It’s using that energy and so it’s going to have a nucleus. It’s going to have Golgi apparatus Mitochondria, it’s a typical cell but there are extensions of those cell bodies called the dendrites. Those dendrites are connected to other neurons and they’re taking information in in the form of neurotransmitters. In fact this whole side of the neuron is receiving information We then have the axon the axon is where we’re transmitting Information it begins at the Axon hillock and is going to move to the terminals now remember the terminals There’s a synapse that connects us to other neurons, but the signal is going to move in this direction We’re taking in information from the dendrites the cell body, and then we can send information to the next neuron now How do we do that is through an action potential and I have a video that I’ll put a link to where I go into the specifics of how that occurs But certain axons in our body are really really long and for that information to travel quickly. We will wrap them in Myelin sheaths It’s a schwann Cell that’s wrapped around it the way It works is we put the voltage-gated channels in between that and it acts to insulate that nerve It allows the information to travel more readily down that axon. And, we generally say if you have an axon that’s wrapped in Myelin sheath. We call that a nerve fiber inside our body now We’re taking in information as well So there’s going to be another neuron that’s connected to both the cell body and the dendrites of that cell But there’s going to be a gap between these two and we call that a synapse It’s a connection between neurons. Again I Have another video on the synapse if you want to dig into the specifics especially of how chemical synapses work neurons are classified in two Ways first way is due to their structural classification, so if we take the cell body of a typical neuron like this multipolar neuron The way you can figure out what what type of a neuron is is? Find the cell body and figure out how many poles are coming off of that cell body? So if we count them, we have a number of different dendrites that are coming off of this neuron And then we have at one axon that’s coming off, and so we call that a multipolar neuron This is the most common neuron that we have in our body if we look at the next one We find the cell body again. How many poles do we have coming off of it? We’ve got the axon coming out and the dendrite coming in and so we call this a bipolar neuron Bipolar Neurons are very rare They transmit information from the receptors in our eye receptors in our nose If we look at the next one, here’s the cell body you can see there’s only one pole coming off of that It’s actually a fused axon and dendrite and we call that a unipolar neuron. Now in vertebrates It’s sometimes referred to as the pseudo uni-polar neuron these are going to be most of the sensory neurons in our body They’re taking information in and transmitting that back into the central nervous system And then if we look on the next one if we look at that You can see there’s no axon on it as at all so we call that an Axonic neuron These are found in the brain, and they’re not super understood now there are a lot of other structural classifications But these are the general ones that you’re going to find in a typical anatomy class? Now neurons can also be classified according to their functional classification those that take in information stimulus coming in from our environment And then the response that we have so if we kind of move that to the central nervous system We’re looking at a cross-section of the spine so we’re taking information in from receptors So these could be in the skin for example touch receptors heat receptors pain receptors And so we have to transmit that information to the central nervous system. So those neurons that bring information in are Sometimes refer to as sensory neurons or afferent neurons you can see this is a unipolar neuron And it’s transmitting that information into the central nervous system, and then we have information going back out We’re sending information out to effectors in our body: could be muscles, could be glands. And, we’re going to call those motor neurons They’re moving away from the center sometimes we refer to those as afferent neurons as well now there should be connections between those neurons those aren’t all the neurons we have in our body and so we Also have these connections in the middle and those are going to be called inter neurons And so that’s the neuron How did you do can you remember the different parts of the neuron do you remember that these are the dendrites the cell body? Do you remember what type of a neuron this is if not go back and rewind it? But those are neurons those are the basics, and I hope that was helpful

100 thoughts on “The Neuron

  1. can u pls upload a video on cell cycle i need it very much its quite a bit difficult for me to understand and if poasible pls try ro to explain wirh animation(images) i hope u consider my requset and upload the same…..☺

  2. Mr. Anderson, you should definitely do more videos on neurology and neuroscience. It would be helpful for those who want to major in this field or have a profound interest. Also, in the viruses section of AP biology, you should do a segment on how animal viruses proliferate and function. I needed it badly for this test, as sometimes textbooks don't provide good visualization into topics. Thanks for the help!

  3. Thank you so much, love your videos, you always present the info in ways that's very easy to understand and retain.

  4. wait, doesn't the receptors send information to the spinal cord which sends information to the the brain for processing and information to the motor neurons for reactions? or is the spinal cord noted as the "Inter Neuron" in this video.

  5. Hi.. Our teacher told us that the ones that receive impulses from the brain is the synapse then it flows to the dendrites.. I tried on searching specific information that could support his statement but unfortunately i haven't been able to find those info yet.. Can you tell us how impulses being transmitted and what specific part of a neuron receive the impulses from the brain as well as the other way around???

  6. I want to know how large is a typical neuron. I cannot find this information neither on Youtube nor in Wikepedia. Can you help me?

  7. Mr. Anderson you're just the best. You've gotten me through three chemistry classes and this is my second bio class I've used your videos to help get me through. This is my last class, however, I will certainly recommend you to other up coming students. Thank you so much for your help.

  8. Do neurons change when someone is a mental illness??? I'm an artist and I'm trying to create pieces on mental health

  9. You're making really good videos . I'm a german student and our teacher uses them often for his lessons. Great job.

  10. This is great! Please do more videos on neurology! Your video on action potential is the most clear and thorough explanation I have seen yet. I'd like to see one that gets into Smooth & Rough ER, golgi apparatus, and how retrograde transport works.

  11. Hello guys. I have no medical education but I’m really interesting in brain structure and etc. could you give me some advice what book should I reed to understand more profoundly. Thanks in advance

  12. I think anaxonic is gain reducer ( signal chain drainer) and unipolar is gainer ( signal volume increaser ) other is receptors and effectors, exept axonal myeline cell may also regulate something like latency of transmission action impulse or also gain.

  13. Thank you very much. This video was very descriptive and useful on the basics of neurons. I liked it a lot and will continue to watch the other videos in the series

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